Rolling Realms: Micro Dojo

You’ll know from my one of my recent articles that I’m a big fan of Roll-and-Writes games, and just recently I picked up Rolling Realms – a Stonemaier (meta)game that distills elements each of the publisher’s games into various ‘realms’ that make up the game for a unique experience each time.

A ‘research’ session in progress

One of the exciting aspects of Rolling Realms is the idea that more realms, including crossover games from outside of the Stonemaier games catalogue, can be easily added in future. In fact two additional realms have already been announced. Whilst playing the game I couldn’t help but put my game designers cap on! I found that it has a fairly balanced framework that can be used to derive several principles with which to create and benchmark new realms. As well as digging in to the numbers, I used this to create my very own Micro Dojo realm to fit into Rolling Realms.

If you want to skip straight to the Micro Dojo realm you can go to the end of the article. For more details on the analysis of Rolling Realms and how I used that framework to build the Micro Dojo realm, continue on below.

Disclaimer: This is not an official Stonemaier product. This is fan-made content for personal use, and printed versions cannot be distributed or sold. More info on Stonemaier’s fan content policy here.

Realm Thematics

Stonemaier games tend to have fairly unique mechanics, or combinations of mechanics, that make them recognisable. Rolling Realms abstracts those mechanics, or typically just one of them, into a very simplified form that is still reminiscent of the original game.

In the Scythe realm for example, the core mechanic of gaining a resource with a top action and spending a resource to gain an additional bottom action is captured in Rolling Realms. The area control, resource management, and scoring systems are far too complex to capture in Rolling Realms, but it is still recognisable to anyone who has played Scythe.

Realms: Scythe and Between Two Cities

In Between Two Cities, the concept of your score being based on the lower of your two cities is captured by your realm score being dependent on your other two realms. Euphoria evaluates dice ‘totals’ in an area when placed. Tapestry has you fit objects to fill a 9×9 grid. Viticulture combines multiple objects to create a final product…

To create a Micro Dojo realm then, it’s necessary to catalogue the key recognisable aspects of the game. I consider this to be simplified to:

  • Move workers on a 3×3 board
  • Spend resources to purchase buildings
  • Score predetermined objectives

The worker movement aspect is the core of the game experience, and in particular the tension with your opponent that it invokes, so a 3×3 grid is a must in the Micro Dojo realm. Gaining resources and then spending them to obtain an ability or score points is also something that is easily abstracted into the Rolling Realms format. All of the objectives in Micro Dojo rely on player interaction to evaluate which player scores points, and since there is no player interaction in Micro Dojo this was part of the game that didn’t make it into the realm. So now there is an outline in place for the Micro Dojo realm – a 3×3 board, and possibly with 6 available buildings.

Realm Balance

Rolling Realms’ has two (maybe three) great advantages that make adding and balancing a new realm very simple.

Rolling Realms’ modular approach, where 3 different realms are chosen for each of 3 rounds, means that two games won’t be the same (with around 90,000 unique combinations). This modular approach means that realms can be designed and balanced in almost complete isolation. Unlike complex euro games with unique interactions between abilities, each realm is effectively independent and linked to the other only through common resources. As long as the realm is internally balanced (i.e. in line with the framework detailed here) then it will fit well within the Rolling Realms…realm. The exciting thing about this from a game design perspective is that it makes the game easily extensible, as already demonstrated by the official Terra Mystica promo pack and the very meta Rolling Realms realm.

Rolling Realms Terra Mystica (Credit: Stonemaier Games)

Secondly, Rolling Realms uses shared dice and a shared set of realms (like X-and-write’s such as Welcome To or Railroad Ink) as opposed to personal or semi-shared resource like in Ganz Schon Clever or Hadrian’s Wall. This means that, since all players have access to the exact same resources, it becomes a game that rewards the most skilful use of those resources. More importantly for balancing purposes, it allows for somewhat imperfect balance without affecting the enjoyability of a game. Internal balance issues in games typically cause frustration when they favour one particular player (e.g. they drew the ‘broken’ card or got the ‘best’ player character) and usually when this is a result of random chance. If one particular realm is viewed as stronger or easier to complete than the other, then all players have an equal opportunity to exploit that realm. Whilst a totally overpowered realm would be undesirable, it does mean less overall playtesting is required to create a suitable realm. This analysis should go a good way towards creating a balanced realm.

Realm Action Economy

First let’s take a look at the action economy in the game. There are 9 turns in each round, with two dice being placed each turn, and as each realm can only be activated once per turn, this ordinarily means that 9 spaces is the maximum number that can be completed.

RealmAction Spaces
Between Two Cities9
Between Two Castles10
My Little Scythe12
The Society9
Number of Action (dice) spaces available by Realm

As mentioned above, 9 is the maximum number of dice that can normally be placed in a realm, so Between Two Castles, Charterstone, Euphoria, (My Little) Scythe and Pendulum are immediate standouts . Most of those realms manage this by offering ways to place additional dice; Euphoria allows doubles to placed for ‘free’, Charterstone allows all matching crates to be crossed off at once, and Scythe allows extra spaces to be crossed off by spending resources.

Realms: Between Two Castles and Euphoria

Another aspect to look at here rather than the number of available spaces is how many dice are required for a maximum score. A lot of realms require every single box to be complete in order to score the maximum 6 stars (see the section below on scoring) however Pendulum and My Little Scythe do not. This means that it is possible to score the maximum 6 stars even with no (intrinsic) way to obtain place additional dice and more than 9 available spaces. The only realm that seems like an outlier here is Between Two Castles – it requires 10 dice for a maximum score and no method of placing an extra dice without spending 3 Pumpkins.

The Micro Dojo realm would need to have 9 available spaces at least to fit the 3×3 grid that is the central playing area of the original game (or perhaps 5 if ignoring the starting corner spaces). If the available spaces go beyond that, some method of placing additional dice would be required.

Realm Scoring

Obviously, it should be feasible to score all 6 stars for a realm, so I wanted to look at the minimum possible dice needed , assuming optimal dice rolling. The table below shows the minimum number of dice needed, and whether that also leads to a ‘complete’ realm.  (If you have a better Tapestry solution do let me know!).

RealmMinimum Dice for 6 StarsRealm Complete
Between Two Cities6No
Between Two Castles10Yes
My Little Scythe0No
The Society9Yes

Aside from Euphoria and My Little Scythe, all of the realms require at least 6 dice to score 6 stars. In fact, the average minimum number of dice needed to score 6 stars is about 6.6 across all the realms. This is the best case scenario but does give a good minimum for the number of dice needed to get the maximum score in the Micro Dojo realm – at least 6.

Of course scoring 6 points in all 3 realms is challenging, if not impossible in some realm combinations, but I was curious to dig further into this scoring pattern. The chart below maps how points are delivered per dice, assuming an optimal path to 6 points. Some realms offer points at a fairly even pace (Scythe for example at a rate of about 1:1). Some realms require a heavier investment up front to begin scoring (such as The Society and Tapestry). Others deliver their points in chunks (such as Viticulture, Pendulum and Wingspan).

In the games that I have played, I’ve scored an average of 13-14 points per round. Some outlier situations resulted in a round score of around 16 (thanks, Between Two Cities) or lower scores of around 10 (thanks, dice gods), but an expected score of 13-14 per round means an average score per realm of about 4.5 stars.

Realm Resources

As a general rule across the realms, placing a dice seems to lead to 1 resource generated (whether pumpkin, heart or coin). This assertion is instinctual given that, on their own, few spaces do ‘nothing’ and few spaces provide two resources. Let’s have a look at the numbers in more detail by seeing how many resources are available and how many dice are needed to obtain them:

RealmPumpkinsHeartsCoinsTotalAction SpacesRatio
Between Two Cities4441291.33
Between Two Castles3339100.9
My Little Scythe6*6*6*18*121.5
The Society333991
Micro Dojo
Resources to action spaces ratio

Firstly, and rather unsurprisingly, resource are equally spread across every single realm. That is the number of Pumpkins, Hearts and Coins available are the same in any given realm. Though it seems like an obvious point that realms should have equal internal balance as well as overall balance, it is reminder that the Micro Dojo realm should also have equal resources (and that these resources are about equally accessible, with no one resource harder or easier to obtain than another).

Secondly, my assertion above that placing a dice leads to 1 resource generated is about right, at an average of 0.97 per dice. However, this average is calculated on the basis of a fully completed realm. Since scoring points is the ultimate goal of the game, and resources simply smooth the way to get there (the 0.1 points per resource being fairly nominal), it is also interesting to look at how many resources are generated when following the optimal scoring path.

Between Two Cities460.67
Between Two Castles9100.9
My Little Scythe0*0*0*
The Society991
Resources generated whilst following optimal scoring

When following an optimal scoring path (i.e. the minimum number of dice needed to obtain 6 points) the number of resources generated per dice is about 0.5. In several cases this is because no resources are generated when exclusively focusing on points, or in the case of Scythe because the gained resource is offset by a resource spent.

Realms: Tapestry and Charterstone

Finally, an approach that focuses on optimising gathering all of the resources in a realm (whilst ignoring scoring) results in an average ratio of about 1.2 per dice. Hardly enough above the baseline to warrant resource gathering over scoring points as a strategy, and so I’ve omitted it here. I also charted the delivery of resources for the optimal scoring case above (much like I charted the scoring path) to see if resources were generally delivered consistently, front loaded, or back loaded. Since the optimal scoring path is not particularly realistic however I’ve also excluded it from the analysis. In actuality, given the typical ‘1 resource per die’ finding above, I expect any deviation from the optimal scoring path (due to dice randomness) to be spent generating resources.

The real number of resources per dice is of course somewhere in the middle, as players balance the randomness of the dice rolled with the current game state whilst trying to optimise scoring. I briefly mentioned above the number of dice needed to ‘complete’ a realm, and in the case of both My Little Scythe and Pendulum, more dice are required than are available (12), so the actual numbers may be skewed slightly. Nevertheless, this gives a good guidelines for creating a Micro Dojo realm where a dice placement can be expected to generate a single resource on average, with slightly less for a scoring path that leads to 6 points.

Bringing it All Together

Bringing all of the principle parts of the framework together now gives a pretty good baseline for creating a realm. Naturally the realm could (and probably should) deviate from these principles in some areas, lest it be a distinctly ‘average’ and uninteresting realm to play with. But as mentioned above these principles can help benchmark the realm and ensure it has a reasonable fit in Rolling Realms:


  • Capture just one of the key mechanical elements of the original game
  • Use a common language, resource and object elements

Action Economy

  • No realm has less than 9 action spaces
  • Realms with more than 9 action spaces should:
    • not require all of them to be completed for maximum score
    • and/or should offer ways to place additional dice


  • It should be possible to score 6 points in a realm independently
  • A typical score for the realm should be 4-5 stars
  • Scoring 6 points in a realm requires at least 6-7 dice on average


  • Resources should be equally distributed in a realm
  • Resources should be equally obtainable in a realm
  • Resources should be gained at a rate of 1 per dice on average
  • Following an optimal scoring path should yield approximately 0.5 resources per dice

Micro Dojo Realm

I actually went through several different designs for Micro Dojo, with the one I liked best below. This realm (and one of the alternate designs) is available to download and print: (Download the printable realm here)

Rolling Realms: Micro Dojo

Starting with the idea of movement I toyed with a few methods of capturing the mechanic. First was an approach using circles and crosses to simulate moving a different meeple to the one previously. This led to a rather ‘standard’ path each game though. In the end, it occurred to me that a big part of the movement mechanic in Micro Dojo is having your opponent block spaces – this is represented by having spaces get marked off according to the other die roll. Another design also included building spaces (with the concept of spending resources for some benefit) which, whilst interesting from a play standpoint, proved complicated from a graphical design perspective (as well as balance) and ultimately I chose to go with the more simple design.

As a nod to fans of the original, I’ve also tried to distribute the resources in appropriate space on the board (with stars for Action spaces, Coins where Gold would be, Food where Food would be, and Hearts filling in the gaps).

Balancing all of the numbers to align with the principles above was actually more challenging than I expected, with resources and stars needing to be multiples of 3 (and all evenly distributed). Adding two spots to each ‘square’ (making the total 18) was much easier to balance and captured the feel of the original game more elegantly. Just like with the other realms let’s take a look at the numbers:

Action Spaces18 (9)
Minimum Dice for 6 Stars9
Resources Available15 (9)
Resource Ratio1
Resource Ratio for Optimal Score0.66
Rolling Realms: Micro Dojo vital statistics

The realm has 18 spaces which is far over what any other realm has. In reality the number of available spaces is around 9, since each time a dice is placed another space will also (usually) be marked off.

Since optimal scoring requires every space to be complete, this is a realm that could actually be quite challenging to complete fully. The resources granted for a ‘complete’ realm is a little above the average which I think is fine to offset some of the difficulty scoring points.

I expect the first 3 stars to be fairly easy to score (needing only a single dice), the 4th and 5th stars to be a little more challenging, and the 6th one to be very difficult. This mirrors Tapestry in that way, and is about in line with the expected score of 4-5 points for any particular game. Having to pay attention to the other rolled dice adds some additional complexity due to the ‘spacial’ element of scoring the final 3 stars.

I believe this is a realm that is quite ‘balanced’ from a numbers perspective, but that offers a lot of flexibility early on in the round whilst getting more and more challenging as the realm gets closer to completion.


I’ll let you in on a little secret. Most of that number crunching and analysis came about after I had put together an outline for Micro Dojo. It’s true that game design is as much art as it is science, and the first stage of the design was making sure the game feels about right.

After that baseline experience was in place, all of the analysis here could be used to benchmark the realm. If the number of dice needed, or resources granted, or path to 6 points, were wildly different to the realms that already existed then the Micro Dojo realm would feel like a square peg in a round hole. Then, borrowing ideas from other realms to either accelerate dice placement (Scythe, Euphoria, Charterstone), ‘chunk’ points awards (Wingspan, Viticulture), or pump up resource generation (Pendulum, Between Two Cities), a unique realm could be created that easily fits alongside the existing ones. In effect, I had 11 mini games to use as a reference to create a number 12.

Analysing and drawing out the Rolling Realms framework was a really enjoyable process, like teasing out the hidden structure behind a musical masterpiece, or seeing the clear image pop out of a magic eye picture. It was made even more exciting by having a purpose for such an analysis in creating the Micro Dojo realm.

If you haven’t played Rolling Realms yet I urge you to consider picking it up (or trying out the Print-and-Play, or the web application). If you include Micro Dojo as one of your realms, I’d be honoured to have it played alongside Jamey Stegmaier’s creation, and even more so if you let me know your thoughts and experience with it so it can be improved!

Game Updates

Micro Dojo Expansion launching March 16 on Kickstarter

Today marks the start of a new year, and an exciting announcement for myself and the Micro Dojo fans. The expansion will launch on Kickstarter in just a few months on March 16th. If you’d like to get early notification of the launch, just click the button below:

The expansion has you pledge your loyalty to the Shinchoku and Tsuyo clans that are battling for the town, and includes:

  • Modular board setup for more variability
  • Alternate advancement tracks to pledge Loyalty
  • A new resource – Favour
  • New objectives, including split objectives
  • Extended 9 point game
  • More cute meeples (with advanced movement rules)
  • Deluxe boxed edition with wooden character meeples

And all designed for super low cost shipping and a low price. If you’d like to try out the new content in advance, you can find an updated version of the game online on Tabletop Simulator:

Game Updates

Micro Dojo Expansion – Kickstarter Approved

The Kickstarter project for the expansion (tentatively titled Clan Loyalty) has been approved! The prelaunch page has a ‘Notify me on launch’ button which will send you an email as soon as the campaign goes live.

I am aiming to have things in place to launch early next year, so to follow along click the button below and then click Notify me on launch. 1 bonus VP to anyone who also clicks the share buttons on the page to tell a friend!

Game Updates

Micro Dojo Print-and-Play on PNP Arcade

A lot of people have asked me how they can get a copy of Micro Dojo after the Kickstarter campaign closed. I’m happy to share that the Micro Dojo Print-and-Play files are now available at PNP Arcade:

The files include:

  • Game board and tokens printed on a single page
  • Rulebook translations in French, Spanish, German, Italian, Dutch, Greek, Arabic and Japanese
  • STL files for 3d printable storage box
  • Printable matchbox storage (and low ink version)

PNP Arcade is a really cool store for Print-and-Play games that I first heard about via Jason Tagmire of Button Shy Games. PNP Arcade was a perfect fit for Micro Dojo, being in line with other micro games and having a very small printing footprint.

Check out the product page for Micro Dojo at the link above, and why not look at some of the other great games on PNP Arcade (including some free ones!).

Game Design

Where did all the money go?

I thought it would be interesting to give you a pretty rough breakdown of the funding from the Micro Dojo campaign to see where money was spent (and maybe help you plan funding for your own campaigns).

Design includes the artwork costs, some rulebook translation, and other minor costs like licensing fonts.

Promotion is the cost of creating review copies and advertising spend during the campaign. Note that I did no advertising prelaunch.

Product is the cost to physically produce 3000 copies, which was done in two separate print runs (of 1000 and 2000). There is some stock left over as 2100 copies were sold, but since Micro Dojo doesn’t have a direct line to retail this stock isn’t as easy to count as future profit.

Shipping includes the cost of freighting the product to the UK from UAE, and the cost of shipping all of the individual copies to backers (as well as shipping materials). I didn’t use a fulfilment partner.

Fees and Costs includes Kickstarter fees and payment processing fees, PayPal fees from late pledges, and also includes VAT costs for UK backers. I absorbed the costs of VAT for UK backers which offsets the import VAT costs to bring the goods into country, and so were not included above in shipping.

Profit is exactly what is says. I expect there to be some further future costs to replace some missing/damaged copies etc. but this shouldn’t materially change the amount

One of the things that immediately jumped out to people is the cost of shipping, well known to be astronomical at the moment. This didn’t sit right with me though because Micro Dojo was designed to be ultra cheap to ship, and even using a standard parcels service to freight from the manufacturer to my door was still a similar cost or cheaper than a commercial air or sea freight option. An alternative way of breaking down the costs then was to split it by the phases of the project. This is a similar split to above but basically includes the game design phase (pre campaign), promotion during the campaign, production and freight post campaign, and then fulfilment to backers.

What’s Missing?

Time. A question that comes up for new designers, but not often enough, is how much is your time worth?

Making a game is a hobby for some designers, and even for some budding professional designers it is considered a success to run a campaign that doesn’t lose too much money. So ending with some amount of profit from Micro Dojo was a massive success far beyond what I could have hoped. However, it also put into perspective how difficult it can be to make designing board games sustainable.

Micro Dojo from first conception through to the end of (the majority of) fulfilment took 10 months. On that basis it’s a small return over that time period, but I was also working a full-time job which meant I wasn’t quite doing 40 hours a week on Micro Dojo. That said, I estimate that somewhere between 20-30 hours per week is an average time spent.

A large part of that time was spent on campaign details and learning about other factors like manufacturing, logistics, the changing VAT situation etc. Further till some time was spent on things important to the development of myself and Prometheus Game Labs but were not strictly related to Micro Dojo. Playtesting others games, reading books and articles, developing and sharing my thoughts on this blog, and so on. Whilst future campaigns shouldn’t take as much time to cover the basics, it’s still worth noting that game design was actually a very small component of the overall time spent to bring a game to life.

Was it worth it?

From a purely financial perspective, I would have been better putting my spare time into working a second minimum-wage job, though I would have learned and created very little. However the Micro Dojo campaign gave a ton of value beyond the financial return:

  • Expertise in game design and publishing
  • An audience for future games and campaigns
  • A creative outlet
  • Engagement with people in the design and gaming community

Totally worth it. Micro Dojo was intended to be a launch towards larger campaigns (and larger games) and it’s provided a fantastic start. The format of the game allowing for a low price and low cost international shipping was well received, and future games in this format are also likely to be successful. Making games of this type sustainably in future though will require reducing the time spent on the project, or increasing the reach.

I hope this article helps other designers looking at their costs and breakdowns, as well as provides an interesting insight to fans of the game that want to know more about what it takes to create and launch a game.

Game Updates

Micro Dojo – Late Pledges

In case you missed the campaign, late pledges are now open at Gamefound where you can order your copy (or copies). These will be sent out with all of the wave 2 shipments, but the late pledges won’t be open for very long. Once Wave 2 fulfilment starts the late pledge option will be removed.

Game Updates

Micro Dojo – 24 hours left

Micro Dojo has had an incredible campaign on Kickstarter, but there are just 24 hours left.

Currently over 2800% funded and with thousands of backers, If you’d like to get your copy for only £5 you can click the button below and pledge

Game Design

Micro Dojo – Advanced Game Mode

In this update, I want to show you the advanced game mode, with a little insight into the development process. The advanced game mode can be thought of as a mini-expansion to the game, as it adds more complexity and a (varied) different ways to play. This fit well with my mission to pack as much value as possible into a small game, and the advanced game mode let me explore some more interesting design space without overwhelming new players. The advanced game mode adds two features:

  • Advanced Movement Abilities
  • Advanced Objectives

Advanced Movement Abilities

When designing buildings for the game, they generally gave you abilities in one of three areas:

  • Gaining resources
  • Controlling movement
  • Gaining points

You might recognise two of the buildings in the game that fall into the movement category – the Stables and the Guard House. However in the early designs there were four more buildings that allowed a player to unlock additional abilities for the Geisha, Sumo, Ninja and Samurai meeples:

These buildings gave more options to the player, but for a less experienced player it wasn’t intuitive that purchasing one of these buildings could be more valuable than something more straightforward like a resource gathering or points scoring building. The biggest problem with these buildings though was that if they didn’t come out during the initial random selection, the characters had no…well…character.

Playing with movement abilities unique to each character was something that I really wanted to include in the game, both as interesting design space and to communicate the theme better. Including these abilities as standard detracted from the tight simplicity of the base game however, and made the game much harder to learn. This made them a perfect candidate for an advanced game mode that offered players that had mastered the standard game a new way to play.

The advanced game mode has two main variants, and a third variant that can be applied with either one.

In Variant 1A the movement abilities of each meeple can be used by paying the cost shown in the rulebook. These are priced at two resources each, which is fairly costly when you think that some of the stronger spaces in game give you 2 resources for a turn. Consequently the movement abilities get used sparingly during the game, but when they are used they can be decisive. You and your opponent now have an extra threat to keep track of if they can be afforded.

In Variant 2A the movement abilities of each meeple are available for free at all times. This adds a lot of extra complexity because of the amount of choice that you and your opponent has, but also leads to fun, powerful and somewhat chaotic games. Because of the overwhelming complexity of choice the game loses some of the chess-like calculation elements, but is generally a quicker and more exciting game.

Finally Variant 1B/2B modifies the other two variants by letting you (randomly) choose which meeples have abilities available for the game. To do this you simply flip the meeple tokens during setup, with the coloured side being active and the grey side being inactive.The legacy of the advanced game mode abilities as buildings lives on, and though the artwork for them didn’t make it into the final game I’m delighted to share it with you my fans.

Advanced Objectives

The other part of the game that is modified with the advanced game mode is the inclusion of advanced objectives, which can be included with the existing 9 objectives during setup.

Three of these objectives are based around positioning, which is not a feature seen in objectives in the base game at all. The Combatant and Spymaster objectives score the active player points if the two meeples adjacent to each other when the objective is triggered, whilst the Organiser objective scores if any three meeples are in a straight line. This encourages players to look at the state of the board not only in terms of what spaces are (or will) be available but also at relative positioning of the meeples. In the standard game with only basic orthogonal movement it was very easy to prevent anyone from scoring these objectives and gameplay stalled, however in combination with the advanced movement abilities a smart player can grab points from these objectives.

The other two objectives are based around what might initially seem counterintuitive play. For a game that wants you to acquire resources, build buildings, and score points, having the least of these things seems at odds with driving the game to a conclusion. These two can lead to some interesting races where one player foregoes the objective points in order to obtain an earlier advantage.

Playing Advanced Mode

The advanced game is recommended for players that have played at least 5 games of the standard mode due to the added complexity. Even if a player only played Micro Dojo 5 times I think it already represents great value for money, but adding the advanced game mode variant (for just a handful of tokens and two panels in the rulebook) was a great way I could pack even more value into the game and give it a long life.

(Note: Credit for the prototype meeple artwork that was used for testing goes to

Game Updates

Micro Dojo – Solo Mode

Thanks to the pandemic, more and more people are playing and enjoying board games solo, and at 20 minutes a game Micro Dojo is perfect for a quick solo game whilst travelling or over coffee. 

Full disclosure – I wasn’t much of a solo board gamer, and when I first started work on Micro Dojo I hadn’t planned on a solo mode. I say I wasn’t much of a solo gamer, because the Solo Board Gamers group on Facebook is a hugely passionate group of gamers that opened my eyes to some really enjoyable games to play solo (including Tainted Grail, It’s a Wonderful World, and Spirit Island). Once I appreciated what a good solo mode for a game could be, I set out to make a great one for Micro Dojo. If you also like solo games you might want to check out the Facebook group too.

As of this update, the solo mode cards are going to be available to all backers as a print-and-play on a single sheet of paper.

When designing the solo mode for Micro Dojo there were some key things I wanted to achieve:

  • Capture the spirit of the two-player game
  • Have minimal rule variations from the two-player game
  • Minimise the overhead for handling the AI player

You can read more about the steps I went through in development of the solo mode below, and watch the How to Play video here:


The first draft of the solo mode simply had 8 tiles, one for each meeple and one for each direction. The meeple would always move in that direction (regardless of daimyo markers) and if it couldn’t then it would activate the space it was on. It was somewhat possible to somewhat predict where the AI would move on the third (and definitely fourth) draw, which was a good thing for capturing the spirit of the game, but the different movement rules for the AI felt quite removed the original game and was more like a race or an optimisation problem for the player. 

The second big change was from tokens to cards. Testing on tabletop simulator let me run a lot of solo mode tests, but the digital environment disguised the fact that picking up, flipping, and shuffling the tiny tokens by hand would quickly become tedious. I chose American Mini sized cards as 10 of them would fit onto the same sized sheet as the token punchboard, making manufacturing and shipping easier.

The final change came thanks to a suggestion from fellow designer Simon Beal. To fit the feel of the two-player game, I considered having the player draw another meeple or movement card if that meeple was blocked, but with a deck of only 4 cards it felt like extra overhead for the player to manage when really I wanted them to be spending their time thinking about their next move. Simon suggested a priority system, and so sequencing the meeples and movement directions on the cards allowed for lots more variation depending on game state, whilst being a simple process to follow.

Then came the variation rules for activating spaces. As much as possible the AI should feel like a real player – gaining resources, buying buildings, and scoring objectives. However the AI is also not as smart as a real player, and can’t make decisions like placing a higher value on certain moves or resources because of the current (and future) game state. To account for that, the AI has a little boost in raw power, such as gaining points on the build space when at 3 buildings (without having to sacrifice one) or scoring points on the Action space if the AI is losing the objective. This acts as a timer for the game, encouraging the player to be efficient in their planning whilst preventing the player from exploiting the AI by stalling the game. As players improve and take on harder difficulty levels, the AI is provided with an increasing head start that drives players to optimise their choices even further.

I’m really happy that the solo mode not only provides an interesting puzzle to solve, but does so without excess overhead on the part of the player. It’s close enough to the original that a player who started with the solo game first could pick up the two-player mode. Solo mode is available to play on the Tabletop Simulator module here. If you want to try it out first and let me know your experience here on in the comments, please do give it a go and I hope you have fun.

Company Announcements

Micro Dojo Funded in 13 minutes!

Wow, what a start to the project! Already funded in just 13 minutes has blown away my expectations. 

Thank you so so much for being on board so soon, and I’m really looking forward to the rest of this journey with you.